Culturally Efficacious Evolution Model

In 2010, Dr. Belinda Bustos Flores and other scholars and educators in the Academy for Teacher Excellence (2010) developed the Culturally Efficacious Evolution Model (CEEM) situating it in a socioconstructivist transformative framework (Vygotsky, 1987; Freire, 1983) to strengthen the teacher preparation program.

The teacher preparation program, which includes recruitment, preparation, and retention of teachers, who have the propensity to be socially justice driven, draws on the literature from minority teacher recruitment (Flores et al., 2007; Villegas & Levine 2010); teacher knowledge models (Shulman, 1987, 2000; Saracho & Spodek, 1995; Darling-Hammond, 2006), and teacher induction (Achinstein & Athanases, 2007; Flores, Hernández, García, & Claeys, 2011). The literature that addresses teachers’ personal development, e.g. identity, efficacy, beliefs, dispositions, and positionality (Flores & Clark, 2017; Villegas & Lucas 2002b) also informs the CEEM.


The Culturally Efficacious Observation Protocol (CEOP) is a tool that assists in  assessing teacher practices and student engagement using a sociocultural transformative framework, informed by Sheets’ (2005) diversity pedagogy, Darder’s (1997) critical pedagogy, and Flores, Sheets and Clark’s (2011) bilingual/bicultural critical pedagogy. This instrument was designed to assist the educator in their journey towards cultural efficaciousness. In designing the CEOP, the developers aligned the strands with the Culturally Efficacious Evolution Model as captured by Figure 1 (Flores, Claeys, & Gist, in Press). To ensure the validity of the CEOP, external experts examined the instrument, strands, and attributes. In addition, induction mentors conducting observations also provided critical feedback.

To download the form "Cultural Efficaciousness Observation Protocol Summary Form" click HERE

To fill out the CEOP Summary Form online click HERE



Darder, A. (1997). Creating the conditions for cultural democracy in the classroom. In A. Darder, R. Torres, & H. Gutiérrez (Eds.), Latinas and education: A critical reader (pp. 331-350). New York, NY: Routledge. 

Flores, B. B., Sheets, R. H., & Clark, E. R. (Eds.). (2011). Teacher preparation for bilingual student populations: Educar para transformar. New York, NY: Routledge. 

Sheets, R. H. (2005). Diversity pedagogy: Examining the role of culture in the teaching-learning process. Boston, MA: Pearson College Division.